Efficient Exploration of the Composition Space in Ternary Organic Solar Cells by Combining High‐Throughput Material Libraries and Hyperspectral Imaging
Albert Harillo‐Baños, Xabier Rodríguez‐Martínez, Mariano Campoy‐Quiles. Adv. Energy Mater.2020, 10, 1902417.
Organic solar cells based on ternary active layers can lead to higher power conversion efficiencies than corresponding binaries, and improved stability. The parameter space for optimization of multicomponent systems is considerably more complex than that of binaries, due to both, a larger number of parameters (e.g., two relative compositions rather than one) and intricate morphology–property correlations. Most experimental reports to date reasonably limit themselves to a relatively narrow subset of compositions (e.g., the 1:1 donor/s:acceptor/s trajectory). This work advances a methodology that allows exploration of a large fraction of the ternary phase space employing only a few (<10) samples. Each sample is produced by a designed sequential deposition of the constituent inks, and results in compositions gradients with ≈5000 points/sample that cover about 15%–25% of the phase space. These effective ternary libraries are then colocally imaged by a combination of photovoltaic techniques (laser and white light photocurrent maps) and spectroscopic techniques (Raman, photoluminescence, absorption). The generality of the methodology is demonstrated by investigating three ternary systems, namely PBDB‐T:ITIC:PC70BM, PTB7‐Th:ITIC:PC70BM, and P3HT:O‐IDFBR:O‐IDTBR. Complex performance‐structure landscapes through the ternary diagram as well as the emergence of several performance maxima are discovered.